Fish Photos, Fishing Info, Angling, Catching Fish, Cooking Fish

Australian Fish Photos, Seafood Photographs and Information

Custom Search

Sea-Ex is celebrating
27 YEARS of assisting Seafood, Marine & Related Companies with online marketing!

Advertise Your Company on Sea-Ex - Click Here


Directory & Info for Fishing, Angling, Fishing Tackle, Fishing Guides, Fly Fishing, Bass Fishing, Sports fishing, Game Fishing....
See >> Info on All types of Fishing | Angling | Tackle etc

Australian Fish Bag Limits and Size Regulations

Photos of  Australian Seafood, Fish, Crustaceans & Cephalopods and Information on each....

Abalone, Blacklip
Albacore Tuna
Baler Shell
Barbounia, Tiny
Bass, Sea
Batfish, Silver
Bonito Tuna
Bonito, Watson's Leaping
Bream, Butter
Bream, Slate
Bug, Moreton Bay (Slipper Lobster)
Bug, Balmain
Calamari, Southern
Carp, European
Catfish, Blue
Catfish, Lesser Salmon
Cod, Bar
Cod, Blue eye
Cod, Coral Rock
Cod, Ghost
Cod, Maori
Cod, Murray
Cod, Southern Rock
Cod, Spotted
Cod, Tomato
Cod, Wirrah
Cod, Yellow Spotted
Coral Trout
Crab, Blue Swimmer
Crab, Champagne
Crab, Giant
Crab, Mud
Crab, Spanner
Dart Fish
Dolphin Fish
Dory, John
Dory, Mirror
Dory, Silver
Drummer, Southern
Eel, Longfin
Emperor, Red
Emperor, Red Throat
Flounder, Small Toothed
Flutemouth, Rough
Frost Fish
Gurnard, Red
Gurnard, Spotted
Hump Headed Maori Wrasse
Jackass Fish
Jacket, Ocean
Jacket, Sea
Jobfish, Gold Banned
Jobfish, Rosy
Kingfish, Yellowtail
Latchet Fish
Leatherjacket, Reef
Lobster - Eastern Rock
Lobster - Southern Rock
Long Tom
Mackeral, Jack
Mackerel, Slimey
Mahi Mahi
Mangrove Jack
Marlin, Black
Marlin, Blue
Marlin, Striped
Melon Shell
Moon Fish
Morwong, Red
Mullet - Roe
Mullet, Diamond Scale
Mullet, Red
Mullet, Sea
Mullet, Yelloweye
Mussels Black
Mussels Greenlip
Orange Roughy
Oreo, Black
Oyster, Native
Oyster, Pacific
Oyster, Sydney Rock
Parrot Fish
Parrot Fish (2)
Perch, Ocean
Perch, Saddle Tail Sea
Perch, Silver
Perch, Splendid
Perch, Stripey Sea
Pig Fish
Pineapple Fish
Prawn, Banana
Prawn, King
Prawn, Red Spot
Prawn, School
Prawn, Tiger
Queenfish, Needleskin
Rainbow Runner
Redclaw Crayfish
Ribbon Fish
Rudder Fish
Salmon, Atlantic
Salmon, Australian
Scallops, Queensland
Scallops, Tasmanian
Scorpion Fish, Raggy
Shark Black Tip
Shark, Blue
Shark Bronze Whaler (Dusky)
Shark, Bull
Sharks Fins
Shark, Gummy
Shark, Mako
Shark, School
Shark, Tiger
Shark, Whiskery Reef
Shark, White
Shrimp, Mantis
Silver Biddy
Snapper, Big Eye
Snapper, Fry Pan
Snapper, Gold Band
Snapper, King
Snapper, Red
Snapper, Red Tropical
Sole, Tongue
Squid, Arrow
Squirrel Fish
Stingray, Butterfly
Stripey Sea Perch
Surgeonfish, Sixplate Sawtail
Sweetlip, Slatey
Sweetlip, Yellow
Tilefish, Pink
Trevally, Big Eye
Trevally, Golden
Trevally, Silver
Triple Tail
Trumpeter, Striped
Tuna, Albacore
Tuna, Bigeye
Tuna, Bluefin
Tuna, Longtail
Tuna, Skipjack
Tuna, Striped
Tuna, Mackerel
Tuna, Yellowfin
Venus Tusk Fish
Whiting, Sand
Whiting, School
Yabby, Freshwater Crayfish
FULL LIST of Fish & Seafood

Beche De Mer
(Sea Cucumber - Trepang)

Black Teatfish
Brown Sandfish
Elephants Trunks fish
Prickly Redfish
Surf Redfish
White Teatfish

Sea-Ex Seafood Trade Directory
Directory of Seafood Companies by Species Imported, Exported, Wholesale, Processors & Producers

Commercial Seafood Directory
Sea-Ex Seafood, Fishing, Marine Directory
Aquaculture Directory
Seafood Trading Board
Commercial Fishing
Seafood Information by Country
Fish Photos & Fish Information
Interesting Fish Facts & Trivia
Country Directories
Thailand Business Directory
Wholesale Seafood Suppliers Australia
Wholesale Seafood Suppliers International
Retail Seafood Sales
Seafood Restaurants
Seafood Recipes
Seafood Information
Seafood Industry Resources
Sea-Ex Seafood & Fishing Directory - Home Page

Barramundi (Lates calcarifer)
Commercial Fishery & Aquaculture

Also known as Sea Bass, Barra, giant perch, giant sea perch, silver barramundi. The name Barramundi came from an Aboriginal word that means ‘large scaled river fish’

Commercial Fishing for Barramundi: 

Chilled Barramundi on Ice

Wild-caught Barramundis are available from February to October, with the main season being February to April.

Size and Weight
Barramundis mature as males after 3 years, measuring up to 60cm in length, then change into females after 5 years. They can reach up to 1.5m and 50kg, although most wild-caught fish weigh less than 6kg. Farmed Barramundis average 400-600g and 30-37cm and are commonly sold as ‘baby’, or ‘plate-sized’, Barramundi. Some Barramundi farmers are now producing larger fish weighing around 3kg, these are flakier and have firmer flesh than ‘baby’ Barramundi.


Sea-Ex Trade Seafood Industry Directory:
Aquaculture Producers of Barramundi  | Processors of Barramundi  |  Exporters of Barramundi  |  Importers of Barramundi  |
Wholesale Suppliers of Barramundi  |  Seafood Agents for Barramundi

Aquaculture Producers of Sea Bass  |  Exporters of Sea Bass  |  Importers of Sea Bass  |  Processors of Sea Bass  |  Wholesale Suppliers of Sea Bass  |  Seafood Agents for Sea Bass

small photo of australian barramundi, asian sea bass, sustainable seafood

Farming Barramundi Aquaculture:

Barramundi - Sea Bass - A Sustainable Seafood


Barramundi is farmed in all states of Australia except Tasmania. It has an estimated value of production at around $45 million at farm gate. There is every indication the industry will continue to expand, with growth coming from existing farms and new entrants to the industry.

Barramundi Lates calcarifer, occurs throughout the South-East Asian region, including northern Australia. In South-East Asia barramundi is known as Asian sea bass and a successful farming industry, particularly in Thailand, has been established for many years. In the wild, they can grow to 180 cm total length (up to 60 kg) but farmed fish are usually sold at plate size (500 g) or around 3 kg (for filleting).

Australian barramundi is farmed in diverse production systems. The majority of production comes from outdoor fresh or salt water pond operations and sea cages, in North Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

The remainder of production comes from recirculation systems using thermal spring water or fresh water. Recirculation systems are operated mainly in South-East Queensland and southern states. The size of production units varies greatly from boutique operations, usually based on recirculation systems, to large-scale pond or cage systems.

Barramundi was traditionally produced as plate fish for the restaurant trade, but the majority is now being sold as whole fish or fillets, with a new market developing around direct sales to the major suppliers.

Research into the culture of barramundi began in Australia in 1984 with studies carried out by the Queensland Government. The work was initially aimed at adapting culture techniques developed in Thailand to Australian conditions. Following the evident success of preliminary research, the first commercial barramundi hatchery and farm was started in 1986 in Mourilyan Harbour, North Queensland (Schipp, 1996).

There are three culture systems currently used in Australia for producing barramundi fingerlings:

1.  clear-water tank culture (considered intensive larval rearing);
2.  green-water tank culture (semi-intensive larval rearing); and
3.  pond culture (extensive larval rearing).

For more information on these 3 culture systems, see here

Barramundi are currently being farmed in Queensland, Northern Territory, South Australia, New South Wales and Western Australia. Queensland's barramundi industry has experienced the greatest expansion over recent years with commercial aquaculture production of plate-size fish growing from zero in 1986 to 349.4 tonnes (t) in 1996-97, worth $3.44 million (Lobegeiger et al., 1998). Estimated national production in 1995-96 was 529 tonnes, worth $5.83 million (Brown et al., 1997).

Barramundi move between fresh and salt water during various stages of their life cycle. Mature barramundi live in estuaries and associated coastal areas or in the lower reaches of rivers. Larvae and young juveniles inhabit seasonal brackish-water swamps associated with estuaries and older juveniles are found in the upper reaches of rivers (Schipp, 1996).

A total of 16 genetically distinct stocks of barramundi in various major river systems throughout Australia have been identified, although populations in WA have not been studied exhaustively (Makaira 1999). This has caused problems in developing barramundi aquaculture, particularly in WA, due to the variation in maturation and spawning stimuli between these genetically discrete populations.

As barramundi farming is well established in the Eastern States, the production phases and options for farming are well known. The flow chart on the preceding pages summarise these phases which are discussed in detail within this document. Initial attempts to induce spawning with WA-caught barramundi using Eastern States techniques were unsuccessful (Lawrence, 1995). It appears that current Australian spawning induction methods will require further modification before WA barramundi can be induced to spawn in a captive environment. The following description of spawning techniques are therefore based on techniques currently used by farmers in other States.

Hatchery production of barramundi commences with the spawning of captive breeding fish or 'broodstock' and is completed when the small fish or 'fingerlings' are 20 to 25mm long (Schipp, 1996). In preparation for examination of the spawning condition of the fish, the broodstock must first be caught and anaesthetised. Once anaesthetised, barramundi broodstock are cannulated to assess gonadal development (using a piece of silicon tubing, a small sample of eggs or sperm (milt) are removed from gonads and examined microscopically). Only animals with sufficient egg and sperm development are capable of being stimulated to complete their gonadal development and spawn. Suitable female fish should have a majority of tertiary yolk eggs with diameters of >0.4mm (400 microns), while male fish should produce at least a bead of milt when gently test stripped or have a 5mm milt plug in the catheter tube.

Captive barramundi broodstock that are held in recirculating systems (20 to 80t) and conditioned to a constant environment of salinity 30 to 36ppt, temperature 28o to 29oC and summer photoperiod (13 hour day length) are able to be induced to spawn using hormones year round (Garrett & O'Brien, 1994). For detailed instructions on the preparation and administration of hormones for barramundi broodstock please refer to Schipp (1996). Generally, a commercial barramundi hatchery holds between 25 and 70 brood fish, ranging in size from 3 to 20kg. Excess broodstock are preferred to ensure egg supply but the actual number required depends on the performance of the fish (i.e. fecundity, ease of spawning, regularity of spawning etc.), with the cost of holding broodstock requiring consideration.

Maintenance of genetic diversity in farmed populations is facilitated by use of large numbers of broodstock.

Eastern States barramundi spawn naturally in tanks following injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRH-a) at 19 to 27 micrograms per kilogram (µg/kg) of body weight. Each female releases 3 to 6 million eggs and the males immediately 'pirouette' around the females' tail, releasing their sperm (Figure 2). Males do not require hormonal stimulation as they receive visual cues from the female to release sperm (Garrett & O'Brien, 1994).

Diet for Farm Reared Barramundi:

In Australia, farmed barramundi are reared on dry, pelleted diets, in contrast to South-East Asia where they are usually reared on 'trash' fish or in association with a foraging species such as Tilapia spp (Barlow et al., 1996. Weaning fry from live feed to dry crumbles can be commenced with fry as small as 10 mm TL, but much better survival and quicker adaptation onto the dry diets is obtained if weaning is delayed until the fry are at least 15 to 20 mm TL (Barlow et al., 1996).

Barramundi are reared on progressively larger pellets as they grow from fingerling to market size. Most farmers prefer to use semi-floating extruded pellets as they float about 20cm from the water surface. Barramundi are reluctant to feed from the water surface or the pond or tank bottom. Diets produced by Australian fish feed manufacturers give good food conversion ratios (FCR) of 1.6 to 1.8:1 under commercial farm conditions (Barlow et al., 1996).

Recent research has shown use of high protein (> 55%) and high energy (> 18% fat) diets for juvenile and plate-sized barramundi can greatly improve growth, FCR (< 1.0 in experimental systems) and profitability of barramundi farming. Formulated feeds need to be stored correctly to avoid loss of nutrients, this is particularly important in the tropics where fats will quickly go rancid and vitamins break down if not stored in an air-conditioned room. Pelleted feed should not be stored for extended periods (Schipp, 1996).

See Also: 
Information on Barramundi & Sea Bass

Angling & Fishing for Barramundi

Commercial Fishing for Barramundi & Aquaculture Production

Cooking Barramundi & Sea Bass

More Links & Resources on Barramundi & Sea Bass



©1996 - 2024 Sea-Ex Australia Sea-Ex Seafood Fishing Home Page
Any problems regarding this page, please contact webmaster [at]

Disclaimer  |  Privacy Policy  |  Cookie Policy